Selected publications

A R Ludlow B.Sc., Ph.D.

February 27, 2009

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Over 30 years modelling a wide range of biological systems.

Work in progress

Imperial College Lecture Notes

The following lecture notes are available as PDF files and may take some time to download. The size of each file is given in brackets.

Ph.D. Thesis: Applications of computer modelling to behavioural coordination

To my surprise, I discovered that my paper The behaviour of a model animal (Ludlow, 1976) is still being cited quite regularly. There are other papers and a Ph.D. thesis on the ‘Model Animal’. The fullest and most recent account is the Thesis, so I have scanned it in and made it available as a .pdf file.

More details and instructions for downloading are available by clicking on:


[1]   A.R. Ludlow. Body-weight changes and moult of some Palearctic migrants in Southern Nigeria. Ibis, 108:129–132, 1966.

[2]   J.S. Kennedy and A.R. Ludlow. Co-ordination of two kinds of flight activity in an aphid. Journal of Experimental Biology, 61:173–196, 1974.

[3]   A.A.G. Thomas, A.R. Ludlow, and J.S. Kennedy. Sinking speeds of falling and flying aphis fabae Scopoli. Ecological Entomology, 2:315–326, 1977.

[4]   S.J. Simpson and A.R. Ludlow. Why locusts start to feed: a comparison of causal factors. Animal Behaviour, 34:480–496, 1986.

[5]   J.E. Moorhouse, I.H.M. Fosbrooke, and A.R Ludlow. Stopping a walking locust with sound: an analysis of variation in behavioural threshold. Experimental Biology, 46:193–201, 1987.

[6]   J.E. Moorhouse, A.R. Ludlow, and I.H.M. Fosbrooke. The contol of walking behaviour in locusts: interactions between competing reflex systems. Animal Behaviour, 39:613–619, 1990.

[7]   D.M. Marsh, J.S. Kennedy, and A.R. Ludlow. Anemotactic zigzagging flight in male moths stimulated by pheromone. Physiological Entomology, 3:221–240, 1978.

[8]   J.S. Kennedy, A.R. Ludlow, and C.J. Sanders. Guidance system used in moth sex attraction. Nature, Lond., 288:475–477, 1980.

[9]   D.M. Marsh, J.S. Kennedy, and A.R. Ludlow. Analysis of zigzagging flight in moths: a correction. Physiological Entomology, 6:225, 1981.

[10]   J.S. Kennedy, A.R. Ludlow, and C.J. Sanders. Guidance of flying male moths by wind-borne sex pheromone. Physiological Entomology, 6:395–412, 1981.

[11]   J.S. Kennedy, A.R. Ludlow, and C.J. Sanders. Guidance system for pheromone orientation in moths — reply to Tobin and Bell. Nature, Lond., 295:263, 1982.

[12]   C.T. David, J.S. Kennedy, A.R. Ludlow, J.N. Perry, and C. Wall. A reappraisal of insect flight towards a distant point source of wind-borne odor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 8:1207–1215, 1982.

[13]   C.T. David, J.S. Kennedy, and A.R. Ludlow. Finding of a sex pheromone source by gypsy moths released in the field. Nature, Lond., 303:804–806, 1983.

[14]   A.R. Ludlow. Reciprocal inhibition and a naive model of behaviour. Postgraduate conference on animal behaviour, Cambridge, 1972, 1972.

[15]   A.R. Ludlow. The behaviour of a model animal. Behaviour, 58:131–172, 1976.

[16]   A.R. Ludlow. The importance of temporal coupling between feeding and drinking — simulations prompted by Toates’paper. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 2:110–111, 1979.

[17]   A.R. Ludlow. The evolution and simulation of a decision maker. In F.M. Toates and T.R. Halliday, editors, Analysis of motivational processes, pages 273–296. Academic Press, 1980.

[18]   A.R. Ludlow. Towards a theory of thresholds. Animal Behaviour, 30:253–267, 1982.

[19]   A.R. Ludlow. Applications of computer modelling to behavioural coordination. PhD thesis, University of London, 1983.

[20]   A.R. Ludlow. Statistical appendix to: Co-ordination of two kinds of flight activity in an aphid. Journal of Experimental Biology, 61:195–196, 1974.

[21]   A.R. Ludlow. Early intervention in Down’s syndrome. British Medical Journal, page 1143, 1980.

[22]   J.R. Ludlow and A.R. Ludlow. The long-term effects of early intervention and pre-school stimulus on the development of the Down’s syndrome child. Project report, DHSS, 1986.

[23]   A.R Ludlow, editor. Towards a sustainable ecomony. Liberal Party Publications, London, 1986.

[24]   A.R. Ludlow. Modelling as a tool for oil-palm research. In S Jalani, editor, 1991 PORIM International Palm Oil Conference — Agriculture (Module I, pages 273–289, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1993. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia.

[25]   N.A. Straw and A.R. Ludlow. Small-scale dynamics and insect diversity on plants. Oikos, 71:188–192, 1994.

[26]   E. Watson, G. Barson, D.B. Pinniger, G. Roberts, and A.R. Ludlow. Evaluation of the behavioural responses of anthrenus verbasci adults and larvae to permethrin (ec) using a computerised tracking system. Journal of Stored Products Research, 33(4):335–346, 1997.

[27]   A.R. Ludlow and T.J.D. Rollinson. Inter-branch report: Statistics and Computing (South) and Mensuration, page 68. Report on Forest Research, 1987. HMSO, London, 1987.

[28]   A.R. Ludlow, G. Kerr, T.J. Randle, and R.M Matthews. Inter-branch report: Statistics and Computing (South) and Mensuration, pages 64–65. Report on Forest Research, 1988. HMSO, London, 1988.

[29]   A.R. Ludlow and G. Kerr. Inter-branch report: Statistics and Computing (South) and Mensuration, pages 65–66. Report on Forest Research, 1989. HMSO, London, 1989.

[30]   A.R. Ludlow, T.J. Randle, and J.C. Grace. Developing a process-based growth model for Sitka spruce. In R.K. Dixon, R.S. Meldahl, G.A. Ruark, and W.G. Warren, editors, Process modeling of forest growth responses to environmental stress, pages 249–262, Portland, OR, U.S.A., 1990. Timber Press.

[31]   A.R. Ludlow, R.W. Matthews, J.M. Methley, and T.J. Randle. Inter-branch report: Statistics and Computing (South) and Mensuration, pages 77–78. Report on Forest Research, 1990. HMSO, London, 1991.

[32]   A.R. Ludlow and T.J. Randle. GROMIT – growth model for individual trees. Technical report, Forestry Commission Research Division, Farnham, Surrey, U.K., 1991.

[33]   A.R. Ludlow. Modelling the effect of global change on Swedish forestry and agriculture. Technical report, Department of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7072, S-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden, 1991.

[34]   A.R. Ludlow and T.J. Randle. Modelling the processes of forest growth. Report on Forest Research 1993. HMSO, London, 1994.

[35]   R.C. Dewar, A.R. Ludlow, and P.M. Dougherty. Environmental influences on carbon allocation in pines. Ecological Bulletins, 43:92–101, 1994.

[36]   H.T. Valentine, A.R. Ludlow, and G.M. Furnival. Modeling crown rise in even-aged stands of sitka spruce or loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management, 169:189–197, 1994.

[37]   M. Broadmeadow, T. Ludlow, and T. Randle. Modelling the effects of global change on European forests, pages 34–37. Report on Forest Research, 1996. HMSO, London, 1996.

[38]   A.R. Ludlow and E.M. Atkinson. How will climate change affect the way trees allocate carbon to root and shoot? Lteef working paper wp16, Long-term effects of CO2-increase and climate change on European forests (LTEEF), Commision of the European Communities, Directorate-General XII for Science, Research and Development, 1996.

[39]   A.R. Ludlow. Some factors influencing the increment of forests. Forestry, 70(4):381–388, 1997.

[40]   R.H. Waring and A.R. Ludlow. Ecophysiology of forests. In J. Evans, editor, The forests handbook, Volume 1, pages 188–209. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2001.